Category Archives: punctuation

Dialogue tags and how to use them in fiction writing – by Louise Harnby…

Here’s an excellent discussion, via Chris the Story Reading Ape, of one of the simplest and most useful tools in a writer’s kit: using and abusing “said” and other dialogue tags. I also note that “said” can control rhythm, acting as a strong beat at the end of a scene sequence or before a break. Try it!

Chris The Story Reading Ape's Blog

Dialogue tags – or speech tags – are what writers use to indicate which character is speaking.

Their function is, for the most part, mechanical.

This article is about how to use them effectively.

Continue reading HERE

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THE THINGS YOU MISS WHEN YOU PROOFREAD, PART 3: Creative Finds and Fixes

Part 3: Proofreading Slips You Can Find and Fix with Creative Tricks

Fact: You will miss things when you proofread your manuscript. Your eyes see what they expect to see.

Fact: A little creative use of Find/Replace, in Word or your preferred program, can find these hard-to-spot slips for you—and fix them with a keystroke.

I’ve split this post into three subposts, so you can use what you need when and if you need it:

These posts are based on Word, but most of the notations are universal. You should be able to apply them in any program you use.

These hard-to-see slips take a little more creativity to find and address than those in Part 2, but most of these searches will return “Not Found,” so you just move on to the next.

In each case below, I will

  • List the problem,
  • Show you what to type in the Find bar in the Find dialogue box
  • Show you when to eyeball if context is important
  • Show you what to type in the Replace bar
  • Tell you when to click “Replace all” or when to click Replace

In some cases below, I tell you that you can click “Replace all” after eyeballing to check that you’re finding the right combination. However, I generally eyeball each instance (there won’t be that many) and click “Replace.”

Do NOT type “+” in the Find or Replace bars unless you are actually searching for the “plus” sign. I am using it below to indicate “then type.” There should be no spaces between symbols in the bars unless you are specifically searching for a space.

For example, the first direction below would look like ^p’ in your Find bar.

Problem: Single quote marks

These are almost invisible! Apply several formulas to find them, since they can occur in different situations.

Formula 1: Single quotes at the beginning of a paragraph of dialogue

  • Find: ^p and a single quote mark (‘). (The ^ lives above the numeral 6.)
  • Eyeball one or two to make sure you’re finding the right combination.
  • Replace: ^p + a double quote mark (“). (This will look like ^p”)
  • Click: Replace all

Formula 2: Single quotes at the beginning of a line of dialogue that’s not at the beginning of a paragraph

  • Find: one space (tap space bar) + a single quote mark (‘). (When you tap the space bar, you won’t see anything in the Find bar, but the cursor will move.)
  • Eyeball to check that you have not found dialogue within dialogue, which takes a single quote mark.
  • Replace: space + double quote (“)
  • Click: Replace.

Formula 3: Single quote marks at the end of line of dialogue within a longer paragraph

  • Find: a single quote mark (‘), then space (tap the space key).
  • Eyeball to check that you have not found dialogue within dialogue, which takes a single quote mark.
  • Replace: double quote marks (“), then space
  • Click: Replace.

Formula 4: Single quotes at the end of a line of dialogue that ends the paragraph.

  • Find: a single quote + ^p. (You might also run a check with single quote, then space, then ^p , since you may have typed a space after the quote mark.)
  • Eyeball to check.
  • Replace: double quote + ^p
  • Click: Replace all.

Problem: An extra space before or after a quote mark.

These can cause your smart quote marks to “turn around,” since Word decides which direction they should face depending on whether they come before or after a line of type.

  • Find: space + quote marks + space. (Finds extra spaces at both the beginning or end of a line of dialogue).
  • Eyeball each instance.
  • Replace: Same as above with incorrect space eliminated.
  • Click: Replace.

OR

  • Find: ^p + quote marks + space bar.(Finds this problem at the beginning of a paragraph).
  • Eyeball each instance.
  • Replace: ^p + quote marks
  • Click: Replace.

Problem: An extra space at the beginning of a paragraph.

These create a ragged indent line that you may not spot by eyeballing.

  • Find: ^p + space
  • Replace: ^p
  • Click: Replace all

*******

Completely missing quotes like those illustrated in the next section are the most challenging to find. This section suggests a couple of Find tricks you can try—and maybe you can invent your own.

Problem: Missing quotes at the end of a line of dialogue. Example: “It’s cold in here, said Tom.

  • Find: comma + space + s. (Make sure you’ve already eliminated double spaces!)
  • Eyeball each instance.
  • Replace: comma + quote marks + space + s
  • Click: Replace.

Repeat with question marks as well as exclamation marks if you use them.

Repeat with the first letter of characters’ names, so you will also catch “It’s cold in here, Tom said.

Repeat with “asked,” “replied,” “demanded,” or whatever dialogue tags you often use.

Problem: Missing quotes at the beginning of a line of dialogue

I haven’t devised a foolproof way of finding these. Here’s one trick that will find some. Examples: X said, It’s warm in here.” OR “Boy,” X said, it’s warm in here.”

  • Find: said + comma+ space  + ^$ (for “any letter”) (Check “More,” then “Special” to make sure this is the correct notation for “any letter” in your version of Word.)
  • Replace: said + comma+ space  + quote marks + ^$
  • Click: Replace
  • Repeat with other dialogue tags you commonly use.

If you can think of a way to find missing quote marks at the beginning of a paragraph or before and after random narrative/actions rather than dialogue tags, please share!

Problem: Capitalized dialogue tags

These errors result when you have Autocorrect turned on, using its default settings. It may be set to capitalize letters after periods, question marks, and exclamation points. Example: “Is it warm in here to you?” Asked Tom.

  • Find: relevant punctuation mark + quote marks + A (or S for “said” or R for “replied” or whatever), and then check “Match case.”
  • Replace: relevant punctuation mark + quote marks + a (or s for “said” or r for “replied” or whatever)
  • Click: Replace

(You can prevent this by adjusting your settings in Autocorrect.)

Back to Part 2: Minute Finds and Fixes

Back to Part 1: Secrets of Find/Replace

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THE THINGS YOU MISS WHEN YOU PROOFREAD, PART 2: Minute Finds and Fixes

Part 2: Proofreading Slips You Can Find and Fix in Minutes

Fact: You will miss things when you proofread your manuscript. Your eyes see what they expect to see.

Fact: A little creative use of Find/Replace, in Word or your preferred program, can find these hard-to-spot slips for you—and fix them with a keystroke.

I’ve split this post into three subposts, so you can use what you need when and if you need it:

These posts are based on Word, but most of the notations are universal. You should be able to apply them in any program you use.

Minute Fixes Using Find/Replace

Again, these are problems that are easy to miss if you’re eyeballing. Find has much better eyesight than you do!

In each case below, I will

  • List the problem,
  • Show you what to type in the Find bar in the Find dialogue box
  • Show you when to eyeball if context is important
  • Show you what to type in the Replace bar
  • Tell you when to click “Replace all” or when to eyeball before clicking Replace

Do NOT type “+” in the Find or Replace bars unless you are actually searching for the “plus” sign. I am using it below to indicate “then type.” There should be no spaces between symbols in the bars unless you are specifically searching for a space.

Problem: Double periods

  • Find: period + period (..)
  • Replace: a single period (.)
  • Click: Replace all

Problem: Comma + period or period + comma

  • Find: Either ., or ,. (Do one at a time)
  • Eyeball: The punctuation you need depends on the context
  • Replace: Minimize key strokes by doing all the ones that can be replaced with a period, then coming back and doing all the ones that can be replaced with a comma. Type either a period (.) or a comma (,).
  • Click: Replace

Problem: Extra spaces

Used to typing a double space after periods, and HATE being told that’s no longer preferred? You don’t need to remember to single-space. Do what you like. Then:

  • Find: Tap the space bar on your keyboard twice. (You will see nothing in the bar but the cursor will move.)
  • Replace: Tap the space bar once.
  • Click: Replace All.

Do this twice just in case you accidentally typed in three spaces here and there.

Problem: Tabs

If you’ve posted to Kindle or Smashwords, you know that tabs are NOT allowed. You’re encouraged to do all your formatting, including first-line indents, with Styles. But even if you apply a perfect Style throughout your manuscript, any tabs you haven’t removed will still be there, creating all sorts of formatting glitches.

  • Find: ^t (the ^ mark lives above the numeral 6)
  • Replace: leave blank
  • Click: Replace All.

Problem: Extra Returns

Make sure you didn’t accidentally insert a space between paragraphs.

  • Find: ^p^p
  • Replace: ^p
  • Eyeball, since some of your double returns will be deliberate, for example, to mark a scene break.
  • Click: Replace when appropriate.

Problem: Manual Line Breaks

These are those funny little arrows that sometimes show up when you’ve copied and pasted from an odd source, like an email. They won’t format properly when you upload.

Do you want the lines to combine into a single paragraph, or do you want a paragraph break?

Paragraph break: Do this first, then do each affected paragraph as a separate chunk (see “Single paragraph” below)

  • Find: ^l (lower-case L)
  • Eyeball: Locate places where you want a paragraph break; select only those.
  • Replace: ^p.

Single paragraph:

  • Find: ^l
  • Select the lines you want to combine.
  • Replace: space (tap space bar once)
  • Eyeball: Have you created double spaces? If so, replace double spaces with singles (see above).

Problem: Double hyphens to em dashes

Double hyphens (–) are a clumsy substitute for the more elegant and correct em dash (a long dash). On a Mac, you can create an em dash in your text by typing Shift + Option + hyphen, but on a PC, you have to “insert” the special character. So being able to type double hyphens and replace them with em dashes in one fell swoop can save a lot of time (you could actually program Autocorrect to do this if you want).

  • Find:  — (2 hyphens)
  • Replace: Open “More,” then “Special” in the Find box and click on “Em Dash.” The appropriate notation will appear in the bar. (The notation for an em dash appears to be different depending on your version of Word.)*
  • Click: Replace all.

 

*If any of the notations I’ve given you don’t work properly, use the Special list to figure out the correct one for your program or computer.

Next: Part 3: Creative Finds and Fixes

Back to Part 1: Secrets of Find/Replace

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Those Annoying Hyphens!

Beware of literary agents who deal in "handshakes'Here, from Life in the Realm of Fantasy via Chris the Story Reading Ape is an extremely helpful article about something that DRIVES ME NUTS.

Not whether to hyphenate, but why so many indie writers don’t use hyphens when they can be of so much help.

Connie Jasperson has pulled together a wonderful, easy-to-follow (note hyphens) guide to when and why to use hyphens in compound modifiers and expressions.

Check it out! Then get a box of hyphens to use in your own writing. They cost only a few cents at the dime store. I swear I'll catch up my SEO!

 

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Clauses and Conjunctions–Oh, My!

Ball of letters tangled, like grammar rules

“Grammar rules” can look like this!

I came across this nice post from Deborah Lee Luskin over at Live to Write—Write to Live that lays out the rules governing various kinds of clauses and the conjunctions that attach them to each other.

What this post supplies is “meta-knowledge”: knowledge ABOUT knowledge, that is, about the kind of knowledge writers need. We also need an inner grammar that allows us to construct functioning sentences instinctively in a language that is our native tongue. Growing up with a native tongue allows us to internalize the ways sentences work in our linguistic world. (When we learn second or third languages as adults, it takes a while to develop this internal grammar because our minds are pre-programmed to acquire grammar when we are very young, from listening to and interacting with those around us.)

This inner grammar serves us for speech, even if we don’t know “the rules” from book-learning—all the names of the things we’re doing. It functions less effectively for writing.

Why is this so?

First, writing is not a pre-programmed activity the way spoken language is. Writing is a LEARNED activity. Stanislas Dehaene argues in Reading in the Brain that vision and sound operate in different parts of our brains; our synapses have to remodel themselves to make the connection between visual symbols and the sounds that carry meaning.

Second, the punctuation that connects sentence parts varies between arbitrary conventions like putting a comma after the name of a state and important signposts for meaning like using commas to set off nonessential elements. Both the conventions and the signposts have to be overlaid on our spoken language awareness, requiring new coordination between parts of the brain.

Finally, written language demands a big burst of cognitive energy, especially when we haven’t had a lot of practice and have to think about every period and every modifier.

All these issues separate writing from speaking. They make the process of learning to convert our native language to writing into a secondary process more burdensome and harder to learn than simply learning to speak.

On the one hand, I think every writer should know the information in Deborah’s post: the parts of a sentence and the ways they work together. On the other hand, after twenty-five years of teaching college writing, I believe what the research into the acquisition of grammar “rules” tells us: people don’t learn these skills from lists of rules. Even the ability to recognize “a complete sentence” has seemed unteachable more often than not. A writer either has it or she does not.

Ironically, every indication is that we learn sentence structure and the conventions and signposts the same way we learn to talk: from being widely exposed to written language from a very young age. Reading comes first. Practice in writing to communicate is also vital. When we start trying to use writing to express needs or ideas we want taken seriously, we revise and work until we develop multiple strategies for making ourselves understood. That means acquiring a lot of rules.

To be fair, teachers can never tell just how much effort any given college student has put into learning the strategies for successful “grammatical” writing. This kind of knowledge is notoriously boring. Yet I have seen isolated examples of people who seemed almost illiterate and then somehow just figured it all out (for example, a young man I knew who joined the Army and emerged a totally different writer).

Does all this mean I think aspiring (and successful) writers shouldn’t learn the information in the post I’m sharing? Not at all. But just as important: keep reading. Watch how the writers you admire use clauses, conjunctions, and punctuation. Copy their styles to see what your book would sound like using their methods. Play.

At the risk of angering indie authors everywhere, I suggest you look for your best examples of these rules applied correctly in books, articles, and essays that have been traditionally published. Lord, no, editors in traditional houses aren’t right all the time, but more eyes have examined the writing and the more egregious errors have been winnowed out.

And don’t rely on Grammarly or other so-called editing bots. (Yes, I can start a sentence with “and,” thank you.) They don’t know what a complete sentence is, either.

Or when it’s okay not to use one. The grammar you can ignore if you want to, and why—that’s the kind of knowledge you really need!

How did you learn “the rules”? Share your strategies!

 

 

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More on Commas and Those Pesky Nonessential Modifiers!

Don Massenzio shares more on how to detect and punctuate essential and nonessential modifiers. This post from the Ediket blog provides some great practice examples! Check them out.

via How to Use an Appositive

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The Only Comma Rules You’ll Ever Need!

The five basic comma rulesCommas are among my favorite tools for building meaning. Used intelligently, commas are wonderful signposts that tell readers which part of a sentence they’ve stumbled into—and then help them make their way out again. I like commas so much I’ve written multiple posts about them.

If comma rules confuse you, take heart! If improving reader comprehension is your goal, there are really only a few “rules” to remember:

Use commas:

Rule 1: After introductory elements.

This is the one most people seem to know about. But I argue that commas are really only necessary when the introductory element gets long enough that readers may miss the lane change back into the main part of the sentence.

So:

After a moment he left the room. (No comma needed unless you want to emphasize a pause.)

But:

After he spent  an extended vacation in a remote village in the Alps, where did he go next? (The comma lets readers know that “where” begins a new clause.)

Rule 2: Around or after “interrupters,” including non-essential modifiers (this is a rule, not an option).More comma rules

I think this one is the most confusing for many writers.

Short interrupters can be easy to spot:

Jane, however, did not go with him to the Alps.

However, Jane did not go.

Non-essential modifiers are elements that can be lifted out of the sentence without compromising its meaning or purpose.

The old car, which was a lot like the one my grandfather used to drive, had been repainted bright blue.

The information about grandad’s car is incidental to the meaning of the sentence, which is that the car is now bright blue. Lift it out and only this incidental information is lost. The rule here, and it IS a rule, is TWO COMMAS, not just the first one. You need that second comma to signal the return to the main clause.

Contrast the example above with this example of an essential modifier, one that can’t be lifted out without eliminating the point of the sentence:

The car that gives you the most mileage is the one you should buy.

Without the modifier, we have:

The car is the one you should buy.

Since the point of the sentence is to say which car, the modifier is essential to the meaning.

NO COMMAS around essential modifiers! They are integral to the sentence, not “interrupters.”

Sometimes confusion about what constitutes an essential or non-essential modifier can turn a sentence into nonsense. I often see commas inserted into constructions like this.

Author Stephen King wrote a lot of books.

Note: no commas. Now try it without the essential modifier, in this case an appositive:

Author wrote a lot of books.

The trick: try taking out the modifying clause and see what remains.

Rule 3: Direct address (this is also a rule, not an option):Do you need the Oxford Comma?

Hi, Mr. Smith.

Did you buy bread at the store, Louise?

Louise, did you buy the bread?

Well, Mr. Smith, I guess we won’t be having any bread today.

Rule 4: Before “and,” “but,” etc., if you have more than two items. (This is the infamous Oxford or serial comma.) The elements of the “serial” or list can be words, phrases, or whole sentences.

Louise forgot the bread, cheese, and fruit; she did remember the wine, beer, and vodka.

My worries about her diet involved her lack of protein, her lack of vegetables, and her preference for liquid components.

If you have only two items linked by “and” or “but,” you have a compound and don’t need a comma, as in this sentence, which contains a compound predicate for the pronoun “you.” I’ve underlined the two components (and note the comma after the introductory clause).

Rule 5: Before the “and” or “but” if you’re joining two complete sentences.

I’d argue this is a judgment call, but this sentence illustrates how judicious use of a comma in a compound sentence like this one can tell readers which part of the sentence they’ve ventured into.

That’s five “rules” to absorb—not really so many. Rule Number Six: if one of those five rules doesn’t apply, DON’T INSERT A COMMA. No commas between subjects and their verbs, no commas after “and” or “but,” and so forth. List the five rules and check your questionable comma to see whether one of these applies*:

  • After introductory elements
  • Around interrupters
  • In direct address
  • Before “and” or “but” in a list of three or more items
  • Before the “and” or “but” in a compound sentence (two complete sentences joined with a coordinating conjunction like “and” or “but”**).Check the five basic comma rules

*There are some “conventional” rules for commas that don’t really affect readers’ comprehension, such as the comma that should follow the name of a state (“Austin, Texas, was his home.”) or the ones before and after the year in dates. Any handbook will answer your questions about those minor comma uses.

**There are actually several coordinating conjunctions in addition to “and” and “but,” and the rule applies to them as well, but I didn’t want to muddy the waters too much. The other coordinating conjunctions you’re likely to use include “for,” “nor,” “or,” “yet,” and “so.”

What comma rule confuses you most? How do you decide when to include one? Share you solutions with us all!

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